Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Abstract

BiVO4/Hydroxyapatite (HAP) composite was synthesized successfully by combining co-precipitation process and wet-chemical method. Three composites have been prepared by varying the molar concentration of BiVO4 and HAP and were named as 1:1-BHC, 1:2-BHC and 2:1-BHC respectively. These composites were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). SEM and TEM images of as prepared composites revealed the BiVO4 nanorods enclosed with HAP nanoflakes while XRD and FTIR results confirmed the formation of nano composites. The composites were then used as photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) dye and the photocatalytic activities were compared with that of BiVO4. The 2:1-BHC showed best MG photodegradation, better than BiVO4 itself due to synergistic effects of adsorption of dye particles by HAP and subsequent photocatalytic degradation by BiVO4. The optimum catalyst dose for 2:1-BHC was found to be 0.1 g per 100 mL of 10 ppm dye concentration with initial pH of solution being 6. These results revealed that BHC-composite did possess the features of visible light active photocatalyst and could be used for the degradation of organic pollutants like dyes.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

[1] D. Luo, Y. Kang, J. Mater. Sci., 2019, 54, 1549–1565.

[2] Y. Huang, W. Fan, B. Long, H. Li, F. Zhao, Z. Liu, Y. Tong, H. Ji, Appl. Catal. B Environ., 2016, 185, 68–76.

[3] Y. Guo, X. Yang, F. Ma, K. Li, L. Xu, X. Yuan, Y. Guo, Appl. Surface Sci., 2010, 256, 2215–2222.

[4] G. Xi, J. Ye, Chem. Commun., 2010, 46, 1893–1895.

[5] A. Martínez-de la Cruz, U.M.G. Pérez, Mater. Res. Bull., 2010, 45, 135–141.

[6] T. Saison, N. Chemin, C. Chanéac, O. Durupthy, L. Mariey, F. Maugé, V. Brezová, J.P. Jolivet, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119, 12967–12977.

[7] P. Intaphong, A. Phuruangrat, P. Pookmanee, Integr. Ferroelectr., 2016, 175, 51–58.

[8] R. Adhikari, H.M. Trital, A. Rajbhandari, J. Won, S.W. Lee, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 2015, 15, 7249–7253.

[9] Y. Zhu, Y. Wang, Q. Ling, Y. Zhu, Appl. Catal. B Environ., 2017, 200, 222–229.

[10] J. Cao, B. Xu, H. Lin, S. Chen, Chem. Eng. J., 2013, 228, 482–488.

[11] Y. Zhang, S.J. Park, J. Catal., 2017, 355, 1–10.

[12] K. Pingmuang, J. Chen, W. Kangwansupamonkon, G.G. Wallace, S. Phanichphant, A. Nattestad, Sci. Rep., 2017, 7, 1–11.

[13] P. Luan, J. Zhang, ChemElectroChem, 2019, 6, 3227–3243.

[14] B. Khatri, I.B. Bamma, A. Rajbhandari, Int. J. Chem. Stud., 2019, 7, 595–603.

[15] Y.X. Sun, J. Zhang, Adv. Mater. Res., 2013, 821822, 471–475.

[16] R. Marschall, Adv. Funct. Mater., 2014, 24, 2421–2440.

[17] H.R. Han, X. Qian, Y. Yuan, M. Zhou, Y.L. Chen, Water Air  Soil Pollut., 2016, 227, 461.

[18] S. Murgolo, I.S. Moreira, C. Piccirillo, P.M.L. Castro, G. Ventrella, C. Cocozza, G. Mascolo, Materials, 2018, 11, 1779.

[19] A. Ibhadon, P. Fitzpatrick, Catalysts, 2013, 3, 189–218.

[20] C. Piccirillo, P.M.L. Castro, J. Environ. Manage., 2017, 193, 79–91.

[21] C. Jia, X. Xie, M. Ge, Y. Zhao, H. Zhang, Z. Li, G. Cui, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., 2015, 36, 71–77.

[22] P. Raizda, S. Gautam, B. Priya, P. Singh, Adv. Mater. Lett.,2016, 7, 312-318.

[23] V. Rajalingam, Synthesis and Characterization of BiVO4 nanostructured materials: application to photocatalysis, PhD diss, Université du Maine, 2014.

[24] V. Rodríguez-Lugo, T.V.K. Karthik, D. Mendoza-Anaya, E. Rubio-Rosas, L.S. Villaseñor Cerón, M.I. Reyes-Valderrama, E. Salinas-Rodríguez, R. Soc. Open Sci., 2018, 5, 180962.

[25] L. Yong, G. Zhanqi, J. Yuefei, H. Xiaobin, S. Cheng, Y. Shaogui, J. Hazard. Mater., 2015, 285, 127–136.

[26] L.A. Perez-estrada, A. Aguera, M.D. Hernando, S. Malato, A.R. Fernandez-Alba, Chemosphere, 2008, 70, 2068–2075.

[27] S. Srivastava, R. Sinha, D. Roy, Aquat. Toxicol., 2004, 66, 319–329.

[28] H. Jiang, H. Dai, X. Meng, L. Zhang, J. Deng, Y. Liu, C.T. Au, J. Environ. Sci., 2012, 24, 449–457.

[29] S.S. Hosseinpour-Mashkani, A. Sobhani-Nasab, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., 2017, 28, 16459–16466.

[30] D.R. Paul, R. Sharma, S.P. Nehra, A. Sharma, RSC Adv., 2019, 9, 15381–15391.

[31] H. Yang, S. Masse, M. Rouelle, E. Aubry, Y. Li, C. Roux, Y. Journaux, L. Li, T. Coradin, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2014, 12, 1173–1182.

[32] L. Berzina-Cimdina, N. Borodajenko, Infrared Spectrosc. Mater. Sci. Eng. Technol., 2012, 123–149.

[33] N.A.S. Mohd Pu’ad, P. Koshy, H.Z. Abdullah, M.I. Idris, T.C. Lee, Heliyon, 2019, 5, e01588.

[34] H. Bouyarmane, S. El Asri, A. Rami, C. Roux, M.A. Mahly, A. Saoiabi, T. Coradin, A. Laghzizil, J. Hazard. Mater., 2010, 181, 736–741.

[35] N. Babajani, S. Jamshidi, J. Alloys Compd., 2019, 782, 533–544.

[36] S.X. Liang, Z. Jia, W.C. Zhang, W.M. Wang, L.C. Zhang, Mater. Des., 2017, 119, 244–253.

[37] A.S. Hussein, N.Y. Fairooz, J. Babylon Univ. Pure Appl. Sci., 2016, 2510–2518.

[38] X. Liu, Y. Kang, Mater. Lett., 2016, 164, 229–231.