Document Type : Review Article


1 Environmental Research Institute, Academic Center for Education, Culture & Research (ACECR), 4144635699, Rasht, Iran

2 Department of chemistry, university campus2, university of Guilan, Rasht,Iran

3 Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University (PNU), P. O. Box, 19395-3697 Tehran, Iran



Porphyrins are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−). Porphyrins have attracted much attention because of their unique structures and a wide spectrum of very useful physicochemical and biological properties, such as anion binding, stabilization of metal ions with unusual oxidation states, electron transfer, and construction of peculiar supramolecular assemblies. The synthesis of electroactive and water-soluble polymers were accomplished with water-soluble metal(III) porphyrins in the presence of a template. The polymerization by matelloporphyrin is simple (one-step), chemically mild, and environmentally benign and requires minimal separation. This approach provides a distinct advantage over similar reactions employing native enzymes due to higher stability and lower price of the catalysts.

Graphical Abstract

Reviewing of metalloporphyrins as novel catalysts for synthesis of conducting and water-soluble polymers


Main Subjects

[1]. A.S. Ivanov, A.I. Boldyrev, Org. Biomol. Chem., 2014, 12, 6145-6150.

[2]. A. Goldberg, K.E.L. McColl, M.R. Moore, C. Rimington, Disorders of porphyrin metabolism. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

[3]. T.D. Lash, J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines, 2011, 15, 1093–1115.

[4]. S. Severance, I. Hamza, Chem. Rev., 2009, 109, 4596-4616.

[5]. J.T. Groves, Z. Gross, On the mechanism of epoxidation and hydroxylation catalyzed by iron porphyrins. Evidence for non-intersecting reaction pathway, in: D.P. Kessissoglon (Ed.), Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kluwer, The Netherlands, 1995, p. 39.

[6]. S. Kobayashi, H. Uyama, S. Kimura, Chem. Rev., 2001, 101, 3793-3818.

[7]. R. Nagarajan, S. Tripathy, J. Kumar, F.F. Bruno, L. Samuelson, Macromolecules, 2000, 33, 9542-9547.

[8]. W. Liu, J. Kumar, S. Tripathy, K.J. Senecal, L. Samuelson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 71-78.

[9]. D. Kincal, A. Kumar, A.D. Child, J.R. Reynolds, Synth. Met., 1998, 92, 53-56.

[10]. H.H. Kuhn, A.D. Child, W.C. Kimbrell, Synth. Met. 1995, 71, 2139-2142.

[11]. A. Kaynak, Fibers Polym., 2001, 2, 171-177.

[12]. M. Sawamoto, M. Kamigaito, Trends Polym. Sci., 1996, 4, 371-377.

[13]. V. Percec, B. Barboiu, H.J. Kim, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 305-316.

[14]. T. Nishikawa, T. Ando, M. Kamigaito,M. Sawamoto, Macromolecules, 1997, 30, 2244-2248.

[15]. G. Moineau, C. Granel, Ph. Dubois, R. Jerome, Ph. Teyssie, Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 542-544.

[16]. D. Ichinohe, T Muranaka, T Sasaki, M Kobayashi, H. Kise, J PolymSci Part A: PolymChem, 1998, 36, 2593-2600.

[17]. M.R. Nabid, R. Sedghi, P.R. Jamaat, N. Safari, A. A. Entezami, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2006102, 2929-2934.

[18]. J.T. Groves, T.E. Nemo, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1983, 105, 5786-5791.

[19]. J.T. Groves, Y. Watanabe, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 8443-8452.

[20]. X. Hu, Y.Y. Zhang, K. Tang, G.L. Zou, Synth. Met., 2005, 150, 1-7.

[21]. X. Hu, K. Tang, S.G. Liu, Y.Y. Zhang, G.L. Zou, React. Funct. Polym., 2005, 65, 239-248.

[22]. M.R. Nabid, M. Shamsianpour, R. Sedghi, S. Osati, N. Safari, J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines201014, 128-132.

[23]. P. Wang, J.S. Dordick, Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 941-943.

[24]. R. Premachandran, S. Banerjee, V.T. John, G.L. Mcpherson, J.A. Akkara, D.L. Kaplan, Chem. Mater., 1997, 9, 1342-1347.

[25]. K.S. Alva, J. Kumar, K.A. Marx, S.K. Tripathy, Macromolecules, 1997, 30, 4024-4029.

[26]. M.R. Nabid, Z. Zamiraei, R. Sedghi, N. Safari, Reactive and Functional Polymers, 200969, 319-324.

[27]. V. Rumbau, R. Marcilla, E. Ochoteco, J.A. Pomposo, D. Mecerreyes, Macromolecules, 2006, 39, 8547-8549.

[28]. M.R. Nabid, R. Sedghi, P.R. Jamaat, N. Safari, A.A. Entezami, Appl. Catal. A: Gen., 2007, 328, 52-57.

[29]. Y.M. Goh, W. Nam, Inorg. Chem., 1999, 38, 914-920.

[30]. T.G. Traylor, C. Kim, W.P. Fann, C.L. Perrin, Tetrahedron, 1998, 54, 7977-7986.

[31]. T.J. McMurry, J.T. Groves, Metalloporphyrin models for cytochrome P-450, in: P.R. Ortiz de montellano (Ed.), Cytochrome P-450: Structure, Mechanism, and Biochemistry (B), Plenum, New York, 1986, p. 1.

[32]. P.W. Kopf, A.D. Little, Phenolic resin. In: Mark HF, Bikales NM, Overberger CG, Menges G (eds) Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering. vol 11, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, 1988, pp 45–95.

[33]. J.S. Dordick, M.A. Marletta, A.M. Klibanov, Biotechnol. Bioeng, 1987, 30, 31–36.

[34]. J.A. Akkara, L.D. Kaplan, V.T. John, S.K. Tripathy, In: Salamone JC (ed) The polymeric materials encyclopedia, vol 3. CRC Press, New York, 1996, pp 2116–2125.

[35]. M.R. Nabid, Z. Zamiraei, R. Sedghi, S. Nazari, Polymer bulletin, 2010, 64, 855-865.