Document Type: Review Article


1 Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

2 CAS Key Laboratory for Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Centre for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

3 CAS Key Laboratory for Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Centre for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

5 CAS Key Laboratory for Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Centre for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. CAS Key Laboratory of Green Painting, CAS Institute of Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing, China.


A remarkable source of renewable energy is the Dye-­sensitized solar cells (DSCs). However, the major limitation of power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices is their inability to produce electricity using photons from the near­infrared (NIR) spectral region. Some Metal-free organic sensitizers make use of strong electron donating or withdrawing moieties to tune the optical band gap to allow the absorption of lower energy wavelengths in charge transfer systems while porphyrins and phthalocyanines compounds are used to shift the Soret and Q bands toward lower energy absorption. Various molecules are been synthesized to improve and increase the power conversion efficiency of the compounds. This study discusses the structure of these compounds, working principles and their derivatives as recent advances been carried out to improve the power efficiencies of the compounds.

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