Document Type : Review Article


Department of pure and industrial chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.



Wastewaters from chemical industries are characterized by the presence of heavy metallic ions, chemical contaminant and turbidity. Exposure to lead (Pb), for example, is recognized as a major risk factor for several human diseases, and the structure of industrial ecological systems have made exposure to Pb unavoidable for most people alive today. The removal of these toxic metals and contaminants from industrial wastewater is a matter of great interest in the field of water pollution, which is a serious cause of water degradation. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used method for wastewater treatment especially if the wastewater is discharged into surface water. Coagulation/flocculation is a commonly used process in water and wastewater treatment in which compounds such as ferric chloride and/or polymer are added to wastewater in order to destabilize the colloidal materials and cause the small particles to agglomerate into larger settle able flocs. Therefore, the futuristic use as well as the present demerits of this process is necessary for the treatment of effluents.

Graphical Abstract

Prospects and Challenges of Using Coagulation-Flocculation method in the treatment of Effluents


Main Subjects

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