Document Type: Original Research Article

Authors

1 Biotechnology Research Center, Tripoli, Libya

2 Chemistry Department, Gharyan’s Faculty of Science, University of Gharyan, Libya

Abstract

Tobacco products are known to contain some heavy metals that pose threats to smokers. In order to assess the role of smoking habits in increasing the plasma concentration of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb), a comparative study between male smokers and nonsmokers was carried out in Tripoli, Libya. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was used to determine the concentration of Cd, Cr and Pb in plasma blood of 25 male nonsmokers representing control group, and of 75 male smokers divided equally into three subgroups, which were: cigarette smokers group, waterpipe group and snuff inhalers group. According to 2-sample test, the means (or the medinas) of Cd, Cr and Pb plasma concentrations were significantly higher in smokers group compared to the nonsmokers group, and as the one-way analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test revealed, the means of Cd, Cr and Pb plasma concentrations were significantly higher in waterpipe group compared to the other two smokers’ groups. In conclusion, smoking increased the plasma concentration of Cd, Cr and Pb, and smoking waterpipe is considered to elevate the plasma concentration of those three metals more than the other two smoking habits, thus it is more dangerous on smokers’ lives.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1].M. Abd El-Samad, H.A. Hanafi, J. Taibah. Univ. Sci., 2017, 11, 822-829.

[2].R.V. Caruso, R.J. O'Connor, W.E. Stephens, K.M. Cummings, G.T. Fong, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health., 2013, 11, 202-217.

[3]. J. Han, D. Sun, M. Su, L. Peng, C. Dong, Anal. Lett. 2012, 45, 1936-1945.

[4].W.I Mortada, M.A. Sobh, M.M. El-Defrawy, Med. Sci. Monit., 2004, 10, CR112-116.

[5].S. Satarug, M.R. Moore, Environ. Health. Perspect., 2004, 112, 1099-1103.

[6]. R. Khlifi, P. Olmedo, F. Gil, M. Feki-Tounsi, A. Chakroun, A. Rebai, A. Hamza-Chaffai, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 2013, 20, 8282-8294.

[7].W.S. Krueger, T.J. Wade, Environ. Health., 2016, 15, 16.

[8].P.D. Ray, A. Yosim, R.C. Fry, Front Genet. 2014, 5, 201.

[9].A. Ebert-McNeill, S.P. Clark, J.J. Miller, P. Birdsall, M. Chandar, L. Wu, E.A. Cerny, P.H. Hall, M.H. Johnson, C. Isales, N. Chutkan, Toxicol. Sci., 2012, 130, 191-204.

[10].S. Haouem, A. El Hani, J. Toxicol. Pathol., 2013, 26, 359-364.

[11].M. Jaishankar, T. Tseten, N. Anbalagan, B.B. Mathew, K.N. Beeregowda, Interdiscip Toxicol., 2014, 7, 60-72.

[12].B. Wang, Q. Luo, C. Shao, X. Li, F. Li, Y. Liu, L. Sun, Y. Li, L. Cai, Dose-Response., 2013, 11, 60-81.

[13].A.Bernard, Indian J. Med. Res., 2008, 128, 557-564.

[14].M.L. Miranda, D. Kim, A.P. Hull, C.J. Paul, M.A. Galeano, Environ. Health Perspect., 2006, 115, 221-225.

[15].R.C. Wiener, D.L. Long, R.J. Jurevic, Caries Res., 2015, 49, 26-33.

[16].T.M. Ambrose, M. Al-Lozi, M.G. Scott, Clin. Chem., 2000, 46, 1171-1178.

[17].S. Li, J. Wang, B. Zhang, Y. Liu, T. Lu, Y. Shi, G. Shan, L. Dong, Front Oncol., 2018, 8, 242.

[18].V.A. Bampidis, E. Nistor, D. Nitas, Scientific Papers Animal Sci. Biotechnol., 2013, 46, 17-22.

[19].S. Vupputuri, J. He, P. Muntner, L.A. Bazzano, P.K. Whelton, V. Batuman, Hypertension., 2003, 41, 463-468.

[20].P., Muntner, J. He, S. Vupputuri, J. Coresh, V. Batuman, Kidney Int., 2003, 63, 1044-1050.

[21].N. Khalil, J.W. Wilson, E.O. Talbott, L.A. Morrow, M.C. Hochberg, T.A. Hillier, S.B. Muldoon, S.R. Cummings, J.A. Cauley, Environ. Health., 2009, 8, 15.

[22]K. Shekhawat, S. Chatterjee, B. Joshi, Int. J. Adv. Res., 2015, 3, 167-172.

[23].B. Brodziak-Dopierała, J. Kwapuliński, K. Sobczyk, D. Wiechuła, Biom. Environ. Sci., 2015, 28, 89-96.

[24].M., Hummel, E., Standl, O. Schnell, Horm. Metab Res., 2007, 39, 743-751.

[25].R. Saha, R. Nandi, B. Saha, J. Coordinat. Chem., 2011, 64, 1782-17806.

[26].R. Welling, J.J. Beaumont, S.J. Petersen, G.V. Alexeeff, C. Steinmaus, Occup. Environ. Med., 2015, 17, 151-159.

[27].A. Linos, A. Petralias, C.A. Christophi, E. Christoforidou, P. Kouroutou, M. Stoltidis, A. Veloudaki, E. Tzala, K.C. Makris, M.R. Karagas, Environ. Health., 2011, 10, 50.

[28].R.M. Sedman, J.A. Beaumont, T.A. McDonald, S. Reynolds, G. Krowech, R. Howd, J. Environ. Sci. Health Part C., 2006, 24, 155-182.

[29].R. Shrivastava, R.K. Upreti, P.K. Seth, U.C. Chaturvedi, FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 2002, 34, 1-7.

[30].R.P. Wedeen, L.F. Environ Health Perspect., 1991, 92, 71-74.

[31].S.G. Musharraf, M. Shoaib, A.J. Siddiqui, M. Najam-ul-Haq, A. Ahmed, Chem. Cent. J., 2012, 6, 56.

[32]. W. Qamar, A.R. Al-Ghadeer, R. Ali, Res. J. Environ. Toxicol., 2015, 9, 204-210.

[33]. N.M.A. Al-Mansour, Measurement of some heavy metals in the blood of umbilical cord of neonates and their mothers: a comparative study between Riyadh and Al-Qatif cities. MSc thesis. King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2006.

[34].A. Massadeh, A. Gharibeh, K. Omari, I. Al-Momani, A. Alomari, H. Tumah, W. Hayajneh, Biol. Trace Elem. Res.,2010, 133, 1-11.

[35]. A. Shihadeh, J. Schubert, J. Klaiany, M. El Sabban, A. Luch, N.A. Saliba, Tob Control. 2015, 24, i1–i9.

[36].A. Shihadeh, Food Chem. Toxicol., 2003, 41, 143-152.

[37].B. Knishkowy, Y. Amitai, Water-pipe (narghile) smoking: an emerging health risk behavior. Pediatrics., 2005, 116, e113.

[38]. Nordic Council of Ministers. Cadmium review. Nordic Council of Ministers. 2003.

[39]. A.L. Wani, A. Ara, J.A. Usmani, Interdiscip. Toxicol., 2015, 8, 55-64.

[40]. A.Teklay,. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. Diet. 2016, 7, 1-11.