CiteScore: 5.0     h-index: 22

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, 641046

2 Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad, Kochi, Kerala, India, 682506

3 All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 695522


In this work, the persistence of novaluron (Rimon 10% EC) in soil was studied under the humid tropical chilli pepper ecosystem. Residues of novaluron in soil were determined using the modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The recovery values of the novaluron were found to be in the range of 88.4-105.2% with relative standard deviation ranging from 3.8 to 15.2% at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 µg/mL fortification levels in soil. The soil matrix influenced the ion enhancement in a tune of 22 and 28% at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kgand limit of quantitation was 0.01 mg/kg. The initial deposit of the novaluron in soil at 37.5 and 75 g.a.i./ha dosed were 0.073 and 0.151 mg/kg, respectively, which reached below the limit of quantitation (0.01 mg/kg) after 5th and 7th days after the treatment indexing a half-life of 1.85 days for lower dose and 2.13 for higher dose.

Graphical Abstract

Determination of Novaluron Residues in Soil under Chilli Pepper Ecosystem Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry


[1] G. Zhu, H. Wu, J. Guo, F.M.E. Kimaro, Water Air Soil Pollut., 2004,153, 35–44.
[2] J.F. Carriger, G.M. Rand, P.R. Gardinali, W.B. Perry, M.S. Tompkins, A.M. Fernandez, Soil Sed. Contam., 2006, 15, 21–45.
[3] C.D.S. Tomlin, The e-pesticide manual: cypermethrin. The British Crop Protection Council: London, UK, 12th Ed., 2000.
[4] G.C. Cutler, C.D.  Scott-Dupree. Pest Technology, 2007, 1, 38–46.
[5] FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Novaluron: FAO Specifications and Evaluations for Plant Protection Products, 2004.
[6] EC (European Commission), Guidance Document on Analytical Quality Control and Method Validation Procedures for Pesticide Residues and Analysis in Food and Feed. SANTE/11813/2017, 2017.
[7] M. Asensio-Ramos, J. Hernández-Borges, L.M. Ravelo-Pérez, M.A. Rodríguez-Delgado,  Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2010, 396, 2307–2319.
[8] Kerala Agricultural University, Package of Practices Recommendations: Crops. 15th Ed., Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, 2016. p.193.
[9] S.N. Beevi, A. Paul, T. George, T.B. Mathew, N.P. Kumar, G. Xavier, G.T. Kumar, R. Rajith, K.P. Ravi,  S.V. Kumar, Pestic. Res. J., 2014, 26, 35–41.
[10] W.M. Hoskins, FAO Plant Prot. Bull., 1961, 9, 163–168.
[11] S.B. Sushil, S.S. Yadav, B. Kumari, Int. J. Chem. Stud., 2017, 5, 823–827.
[12] S. Khay, J.H. Choi, M.A. Abd El-Aty, M.I.R. Mamun, B.J. Park, A. Goudah, H.C. Shin, J.H. Shim, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 2008, 81, 369–372.
[13] V.K. Madan, R. Chauhan, Pestic. Res. J., 2019, 31, 87–91.