CiteScore: 5.0     h-index: 22

Document Type : Original Research Article


Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences for Girls, University of Babylon, Hilla, Iraq



The study presents of Synthetic gel beads (Orbeez balls), specifically targeting their application in the adsorption of Direct yellow (DY) dye. Advanced characterization techniques like FTIR, FESEM, and TEM were employed, revealing significant findings. FTIR analysis showed changes in band intensities after dye adsorption, indicating gel beads -dye interactions. FESEM analysis revealed a more porous surface post after adsorption, enhancing adsorption efficiency. TEM corroborated the uniform distribution of gel beads. The study also explored the impact of gel beads on dye adsorption, identifying an optimal concentration for maximum capacity. An inverse relationship between adsorbent surface weight and dye adsorption per unit weight was observed, underlining the importance of surface weight in dye removal efficiency. The equilibrium time for DY dye adsorption was found to be around 2 hr, with a rapid initial adsorption rate that slowed over time. The study also found that adsorption efficiency decreases with increasing pH. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qe mg/g) determined for gel beads was determined to be 110.56 mg/g. increase adsorbent dosage increase removal percentage (E %) of 64.76% to 95.9 %, but decrease adsorption capacity (650.76 mg/g to 95.66 mg/g), for gel beads of DY dye. Adsorption isotherms indicate a multilayer process on a heterogeneous surface.

Graphical Abstract

Gel Beads (Orbeez balls) as an Adsorbent for Removal of Direct Yellow Dye from Aqueous Solutions


Main Subjects


©2024 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Sami Publishing Company remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Sami Publishing Company

[1] Y. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Shi, D. Wan, J. Chen, S. Xiao, Adsorption of toxic dye Eosin Y from aqueous solution by clay/carbon composite derived from spent bleaching earth, Water Environment Research, 2021, 93, 159-169. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[2] S.F. Azha, N.N.M. Nasir, J. Musa, S. Ismail, Binary adsorption of textile dyes onto zwitterionic adsorbent coating: performance study, Current Research in Wastewater Management, 2021, 1, 23-29. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]
[3] A.A. Mahmood, A.A. Hassan, Green synthesis of AC/ZnO nanocomposites for adsorptive removal of organic dyes from aqueous solution, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 2023, 157, 111415. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[4] M.S. Salman, M.C. Sheikh, M.M. Hasan, M.N. Hasan, K.T. Kubra, A.I. Rehan, M.E. Awual, A.I. Rasee, R.M. Waliullah, M.S. Hossain, M.A. Khaleque, Chitosan-coated cotton fiber composite for efficient toxic dye encapsulation from aqueous media, Applied Surface Science, 2023, 622, 157008. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[5] B. Mandal, S.K. Ray, Removal of safranine T and brilliant cresyl blue dyes from water by carboxy methyl cellulose incorporated acrylic hydrogels: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic study, Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2016, 60, 313-327. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[6] M.T. Nakhjiri, G.B. Marandi, M. Kurdtabar, Poly (AA-co-VPA) hydrogel cross-linked with N-maleyl chitosan as dye adsorbent: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic investigation, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2018, 117, 152-166. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[7] Z.M. Magriotis, M.Z. Carvalho, P.F. de Sales, F.C. Alves, R.F. Resende, A.A. Saczk, Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) presscake from biodiesel production: An efficient low cost adsorbent for removal of textile dyes, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2014, 2, 1731-1740. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[8] A.M. Aljeboree, S.M. Essa, Z.M. Kadam, F.A. Dawood, D. Falah, A.F. Alkaim, Environmentally friendly activated carbon derived from palm leaf for the removal of toxic reactive green dye, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, 2023, 14, 12-15. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[9] Z.I. Al-Mashhadani, A.M. Aljeboree, N.D. Radia, O.K.A. Alkadir, Antibiotics removal by adsorption onto eco-friendly surface: Characterization and kinetic study, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, 2021, 12, 252-255. [Google Scholar]
[10] M. Radjai, H. Ferkous, Z. Jebali, H. Majdoub, R. Bourzami, G. Raffin, M. Achour, A. Gil, M. Boutahala, Adsorptive removal of cationic and anionic dyes on a novel mesoporous adsorbent prepared from diatomite and anionic cellulose nanofibrils: Experimental and theoretical investigations, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2022, 361, 119670. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[11] T. Esfandiyari, N. Nasirizadeh, M.H. Ehrampoosh, M. Tabatabaee, Characterization and absorption studies of cationic dye on multi walled carbon nanotube–carbon ceramic composite, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2017, 46, 35-43. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[12] M. Saxena, A. Lochab, R. Saxena, Asparagine functionalized MWCNTs for adsorptive removal of hazardous cationic dyes: Exploring kinetics, isotherm and mechanism, Surfaces and Interfaces, 2021, 25, 101187. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[13] N.N. Abd Malek, A.H. Jawad, K. Ismail, R. Razuan, Z.A. ALOthman, Fly ash modified magnetic chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol blend for reactive orange 16 dye removal: Adsorption parametric optimization, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2021, 189, 464-476. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]  
[14] A.M. Aljeboree, A.N. Alshirifi, A.F. Alkaim, Highly efficient removal of textile dye direct yellow (DY12) dyes from aqueous systems using coconut shell as a waste plants, Plant Archives (09725210), 2020, 20, 3029-3038. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[15] A. Khaled, A. El Nemr, A. El-Sikaily, O. Abdelwahab, Treatment of artificial textile dye effluent containing direct yellow 12 by orange peel carbon, Desalination, 2009, 238, 210–232. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[16] Y. Shen, B. Li, Z. Zhang, Super-efficient removal and adsorption mechanism of anionic dyes from water by magnetic amino acid-functionalized diatomite/yttrium alginate hybrid beads as an eco-friendly composite, Chemosphere, 2023, 336, 139233. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[17] S. Shirsath, A. Patil, B. Bhanvase, S. Sonawane, Ultrasonically prepared poly (acrylamide)-kaolin composite hydrogel for removal of crystal violet dye from wastewater, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2015, 3, 1152-1162. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[18] S. Sharma, G. Sharma, A. Kumar, T.S. AlGarni, M. Naushad, Z.A. ALOthman, F.J. Stadler, Adsorption of cationic dyes onto carrageenan and itaconic acid-based superabsorbent hydrogel: synthesis, characterization and isotherm analysis, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2022, 421, 126729. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[19] L. Zhu, C. Guan, B. Zhou, Z. Zhang, R. Yang, Y. Tang, J. Yang, Adsorption of dyes onto sodium alginate graft poly (acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid)/kaolin hydrogel composite, Polymers and Polymer Composites, 2017, 25, 627-634. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[20] S. Pashaei-Fakhri, S.J. Peighambardoust, R. Foroutan, N. Arsalani, B. Ramavandi, Crystal violet dye sorption over acrylamide/graphene oxide bonded sodium alginate nanocomposite hydrogel, Chemosphere, 2021, 270, 129419. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[21] P. Samiyammal, A. Kokila, L. Arul, R. Rajakrishnan, S. Rengasamy, S. Ragupathy, M. Krishnakumar, R. Vasudeva, Adsorption of brilliant green dye onto activated carbon prepared from cashew nut shell by KOH activation: Studies on equilibrium isotherm, Environmental Research, 2022, 212, 113497. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[22] S. Megha, S. Niharika, S. Reena, Highly efficient and rapid removal of atoxic dye: Adsorption kinetics, isotherm,and mechanism studies on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Surfaces and Interfaces, 2020, 21, 100639. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[23] L. Chen, Y. Cui, R. Dai, Z. Shan, H. Chen, Fabrication of starch-based high-performance adsorptive hydrogels using a novel effective pretreatment and adsorption for cationic methylene blue dye: Behavior and mechanism, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2021, 405, 126953. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[24] S. Thakur, J. Chaudhary, A. Thakur, O. Gunduz, W.F. Alsanie, C. Makatsoris, V.K. Thakur, Highly efficient poly(acrylic acid-co-aniline) grafted itaconic acid hydrogel: Application in water retention and adsorption of rhodamine B dye for a sustainable environment, Chemosphere, 2022, 303, 134917. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[25] S. Raoudha, J. Mahjoub, L. Salman, M.A. Khalaf, E.O. Mabrouka, A. Fahad, T. Safa, E.M. Hani, H. Ashanul, Synthesis and characterization of a new meso-tetrakis (2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) porphyrinto) zinc(II) supported sodium alginate gel beads for improved adsorption of methylene blue dye, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2022, 202, 161-176. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[26] Y. Zhao, Y. Chen, J. Zhao, Z. Tong, S. Jin, Preparation of SA-g-(PAA-co-PDMC) polyampholytic superabsorbent polymer and its application to the anionic dye adsorption removal from effluents, Separation and Purification Technology, 2017, 188, 329-340. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[27] N.D. Radia, A.B. Mahdi, G.A. Mohammed, A. Sajid, U.S. Altimari, M.A. Shams, A.M. Aljeboree, F.H. Abdulrazzak, Removal of rose bengal dye from aqueous solution using low cost (SA-g-PAAc) hydrogel: Equilibrium and kinetic study, International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology, 2022, 12, 957-960. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[28] Z. Yuting, L. Beigang, Preparation and Superstrong Adsorption of a novel La(III)-crosslinked alginate/modified diatomite macroparticle composite for anionic dyes removal from aqueous solutions, Gels, 2022, 8, 810. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[29] A. Taifi, O.K.A. Alkadir, A.M. Aljeboree, A.L. Al Bayaa, A.F. Alkaim, S.A. Abed, Environmental removal of reactive blue 49 dye from aqueous solution by (lemon peels as activated carbon): A model of low cost agricultural waste, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2022, 012010. [Google Scholar]
[30] I.P. Ilgin, H. Ozay, O. Ozay, Selective adsorption of cationic dyes from colored noxious effluent using a novel N-tert-butylmaleamic acid based hydrogels, Reactive and Functional Polymers, 2019, 142, 189-198. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[31] A.M. Aljeboree, Z.D. Alhattab, U.S. Altimari, A.K.O. Aldulaim, A.K. Mahdi, A.F. Alkaim, Enhanced removal of amoxicillin and chlorophenol as a model of wastewater pollutants using hydrogel nanocomposite: Optimization, thermodynamic, and isotherm studies, Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2023, 21, 411–422. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
[32] T. Vieira, S.E. Artifon, C.T. Cesco, P.B. Vilela, V.A. Becegato, A.T. Paulino, Chitosan-based hydrogels for the sorption of metals and dyes in water: isothermal, kinetic, and thermodynamic evaluations, Colloid and Polymer Science, 2021, 299, 649-662. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher