CiteScore: 4.9     h-index: 21

Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, PNB 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria

2 Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria



This study reports the phytochemical constituents and anti-diarrhoeal potentials of leafextracts of Corchorus olitorius Linn. (Malvaceae) and that of aerial part of Scoporia dulcis Linn. (Lantaginaceae) in rats. Samples were collected in December, 2016 from Nnewi-ichi, Nnewi, Anambra State and Mandara-Abdu, Biu- Borno State, Nigeria, respectively. The phytochemical screening of the C. olitorius and the aerial part of S. dulcis extracts were conducted using standard methods; the results revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, free and combined reducing sugar and tannins. Saponins was only found in S. dulcis. The diarrhoea was induced in rats by castor oil-induced method. The rats were grouped into 3 rats of 5 groups for each extract; groups I and II served as negative and positive control, while groups III, IV and V as treatment groups. The results showed a non-dose dependent but significant (p<0.05) effects with the lowest mean number of defecations at 6.67±1.70 and 10.33±0.94; and highest protections of 75.00% and 61.27% respectively at the same dose of 300 mg/kg bd. wt. for C. olitorius and S. dulcis. Comparatively, C. olitorius showed significantly (p<0.05) low severity of diarrhoea relative to S. dulcis. Thus, it showed reduction in the faecal output and protection of the rats from diarrhoea induced by castor oil. These observed results could explain their use as anti-diarrhoeal agents in African Traditional Medicine especially in Nigeria where the plants are used.

Graphical Abstract

Levels of Castor Oil-Induced Diarrhoea in Rats Treated with Leaf Extract of Corchorus olitorius Linn and Aerial Part Extract of Scoporia dulcis Linn


Main Subjects

[1]. W.K. Wang, J.H. Choi, H.J. Kum, Arch. Pharmacol. Res., 2015, 27, 189-193.
[2]. D. Acharya, S. Shrivastava, Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formations and Traditional Herbal Practices. Jaipur Aavishkar Publishers., 2008, p 70.
[3]. D.S. Fabricant, N.R. Farnsworth, J. Environ. Health Prospect., 2001, 109, 69-75.
[4]. L.C. Tapsell, I. Hemphill, L. Cobiac, Med. J. Aust., 2006, 185, 4-24.
[5]. P.K. Lai, J. Roy, Curr. Med. Chem., 2004, 11, 51-60.
[6]. C. Andrew, the Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. D. K. Pub. Inc., 2004, p 15.
[7]. C. Bayer, Bot. J. Linean Soc., 1999, 129, 267-303.
[8]. O.C. Danny, Saluyot Now a Popular Vegetable World Wide. Van Nostrand Reinhold Publishing Company: New York. 2010, p 75.
[9]. R.H. Stewart, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 20, 15-30.
[10]. S.M.D.F. Freire, J.A.D.S. Emim, A.J. Lapa, C. Souccar, L.M.B. Torres, Phytother. Res., 1993, 7, 408-414.
[11]. R.A. DeFilipps, G.A. Krupnick, the Medicinal Plants of Myanmar. PhytoKeys, 2018, 102, 1-341.
[12]. J.A. Duke, Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database. USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Centre, Maryland. [accessed on 14.10.2009]
[13]. C.P. Khare, Indian Medicinal Plants - An Illustrated Dictionary: With 215 Pictures of Crude Herbs. Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg: Germany, 2007, p 836.
[14]. U. Sake, S. Maneerat, T.P. Cushnie, W. De-Eknankul, Nat. Prod. Res. Ind., 2011, 49-56.
[15]. K.R. Brain, T.D. Turner, the Practical Evaluation of Pharmaceutical. J. Wright Scientechica, 1975, p 191.
 [16]. N.R. Vishnoi, Advanced Practical Chemistry. Yikas Publication House, PVT Ltd.: Ghaziabad, India., 1979, p 449.
[17]. K.P. Markham, Technique of Flavonoids Identification. Academic Press:New York, 1982, p 113.
[18]. J.B. Harborne, Phytochemistry. Academic Press: London, 1993, p 131.
[19]. A. Sofowora, Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicinal in Africa. 2nd Ed. Spectrum Books Ltd., Sunshine House: Ibadan, Nigeria, 1993, p 156.
[20]. G.L. Silva, I.S. Lee, A.D. Kinghorn, Special Problem with the Extraction of Plants. In: Natural Products Isolation (R.J.P. Cannell, Ed) Humana Press Inc. 999, Riverview Drive, Suite 208, Totowa, New Jersey: USA. 072512, 1998, p 364.
 [21]. W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy 15th ed. Saunders Publisher: London, 2002, p 612.
[22]. F. Awouters, C.E. Neimegeers, F.M. Lenaerts, P.A. Jansen, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 1978, 8, 41-45. 
[23]. K. Dosso, B.B. N’guessan, A.P. Bidie, B.N. Gnangoran, S. Méité, D. N’guessan, A.P. Yapo, E.E. Ehilé, Afr. J. Trad. Complement. Altern. Med., 2012, 9, 242-249.
[24]. H. Usman, A. Aji, A.I. Ahmed, I.M. Wiam, M.A. Jambaima, Chem. Sci. Rev. Lett., 2016, 5, 193-197.
[25]. H. Usman, W.A. Kura, H. Modu, B. Mohammed, H.A. Umar, J. Nat. Prod. Plt. Resour., 2017, 7, 59-64.
[26]. H.M. Burkill, the Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa: Volume 2, Families. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, Richmond: United Kingdom, 1994. p. 636.      
[27]. P.A. Akah, Fitter, 1989, 60, 45-48.      
[28]. E.Y, Qnais, A.S. Elokda, Y.Y. Abu-Ghalyun, F.A. Abdulla, Pharmaceut. Bio., 1988, 9, 715-720.
[29]. W.D. Rntnasooriya, G. Galhena, S.S. Liyanage, J.R. Jayakody, A.D. Hettiarachcht, E.R. Ediriweera, Vtdyodaya J. Sci., 2005, 12, 57-63.
[30]. A.H. Atta, S.M. Mounier, Phytother. Res., 2005, 19, 481-485.
[31]. P.H. Agbo, R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn, Am. J. Bot., 2014, 67-72.